Hold up deutsch
Übersetzung im Kontext von „, hold up!“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: hold up, hold-up, hold it up. Übersetzung im Kontext von „hold up“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: hold-up, hold it up. Deutsche Übersetzung von "hold up" | Der offizielle Collins Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch online. Über Deutsche Übersetzungen von Englische.
The initial contract can cover only short-term situations; eventually, renegotiation is needed, which provides an opportunity for e.
S to hold up B. As S knows that the investment is a significant cost to B and tries to use this as leverage to negotiate an increase in its prices.
In that case, S has more bargaining power, compared to B, and tries to use it to its own advantage. The source of power lies in the investment of B.
For B it is hard to find out whether or not the raise in prices is reasonable. In an extreme case, S could demand percent of the profits if the only alternative to B is to lose the entire initial investment.
Even if the outcome would be Pareto efficient , B might not accept the agreement. If the renegotiations turn out to be unsuccessful both parties are worse off: B has made an investment that goes to waste, and S lost a customer.
Inefficiency is caused by the hold-up problem when B is reluctant to make the investment ex ante from the fear that S uses its extra bargaining power to its own advantage.
A historic example concerns the US car industry, but the example is sharply disputed by Coase In , a sharp increase in demand occurred that was above expectations.
It is claimed that Fisher Body used the unforeseen situation to hold up GM by increasing the price for the additional parts produced.
It has been said that the hold up led to GM acquiring Fisher Body in During transition out of South African apartheid , many white elites feared that democratization would result in tyranny of the majority.
Now that fair elections were held, many wealthy whites feared that the longtime poor blacks or their elected representatives would expropriate wealth from the white minority.
For this reason there was white resistance against democratic and fair elections. To ensure a peaceful transition and to uphold the credibility of the elections , the African National Congress needed to make a commitment to protect the incomes and wealth of the white elites.
That credible commitment from the ANC made the new democractic regime sufficiently attractive to whites in South Africa, otherwise they would not have agreed to transition out of autocracy.
Rogerson showed the existence of a first-best contractual solution to the hold-up problem in even extremely complex environments involving x agents with arbitrarily complex transaction decisions and utility functions.
He shows that three important environmental assumptions must be made:. According to Rogerson the hold-up problem does not necessarily create inefficiencies; when it does, one of the above requirements is not satisfied.
The requirements are necessary to come to an absolutely best solution. If there are direct externalities and renegotiation cannot be prevented, even under symmetric information, underinvestment cannot be avoided.
Such a contract gives the seller the right but not the obligation to deliver a fixed quantity of the good and also makes the contractual payment of the buyer dependent on the delivery decision of the seller.
To endure or continue to do something despite difficulty: They held on until fresh supplies arrived. To present or offer: She held out the possibility that she might run for office.
To continue to be in supply or service; last: How long can our food hold out? To continue to resist: The defending garrison held out for a month.
To refuse to reach an agreement or insist on certain demands: The union held out for a better raise. To prolong the engagement of: The film was held over for weeks.
She held to her resolutions. To offer or present as an example: To continue to function without losing force or effectiveness; cope: To come into possession of; find: Where can I get hold of a copy?
To communicate with, as by telephone: To gain control of. You must get hold of yourself! To be left with empty hands. To be forced to assume total responsibility when it ought to have been shared.
Often used in the imperative: Into a state of temporary interruption without severing a telephone connection: Informal Into a state of delay or indeterminate suspension: The lower interior part of a ship or airplane where cargo is stored.
Switch to new thesaurus. To sustain the weight of: To compel, as the attention, interest, or imagination, of: To be filled by: To have the room or capacity for: To have the use or benefit of: To control, restrict, or arrest: To have an opinion: To put into words positively and with conviction: To view in a certain way: To prove valid under scrutiny.
Also used with up: To organize and carry out an activity: To interfere with the progress of: To hold something requiring an outlet in check: To put off until a later time: To hold oneself back: To be in existence or in a certain state for an indefinitely long time: To cause to be later or slower than expected or desired: To take property or possessions from a person or company, for example unlawfully and usually forcibly: To withstand stress or difficulty: To be favorably disposed toward: An act or means of holding something: A strong or powerful influence: He held the pencil in his teeth; She was holding a pile of books in her arms; Hold the stamp with tweezers.
Wann fangen eure Ferien an? Bleiben Sie am Apparat! Aus dem Umfeld der Suche exhibit , Hang , uphold , keep , persevere , have , possess , sustain , bear anmutig , zierlich.
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